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Training & Placements

Personal Interview

Technical Round

Technical round typically feature the questions that are specific to the job for which student has applied. In this session Technical expert asks questions related to candidate’s branch, brain teasers and numerial reasoning based questions. A technical interview preparation session helps to students at the time of Company Interview and gives confidence to perform well on that day. In this session, each subject expert analyses the caliber of the student and works on them to make them technically strong, so that they may crack the interview.

Technical Question with Anwser
Civil Engineering

1). How do you measure concrete?
Cubic feet, Cubic yards, Cubic Meter

2). Which is stronger solid steel rod or hollow steel pipe?
On a per pound basis, steel pipe is stronger in bending and is less likely to buckle in axial compression.

3). What is the tallest man made structure in the world?
The tallest man made structure is the KVLY-TV mast which is 2063 feet tall. The world’s tallest man made structure is Burj Dubai which is 800 meter tall.

4). What is braced excavation all about?
Excavations are braced to prevent the cave-in of surrounding unstable soil.

5). What is the meaning of soil reinforcement?
Soil reinforcement is the act of improving soil strength to enable it support or carry more load.
Two common examples are

  1. ) Mixing a soil amendment such as lime into weak clayey soil and re-compacting to improve soil-bearing capacity (often done under the road base in highway construction)
  2. ) Nstalling plastic or composite webbing layers (called geo-grid material) alternating with compacted soil to produce a stronger sloped soil structure (often done on steep roadway embankments to improve strength and stability)

6). What is aggregate?
Aggregate is the component of a composite material used to resist compressive stress.

7). What year was the keystone power plant in Indiana County constructed?
1967 began commercial operation on unit 1.

8). What is the force exerted by the Tacoma narrows bridge?
The force exerted to the Tacoma narrows bridge was initially the wind resistance. The wind resistance caused the whole bridge to act as a system with forced vibration with damping

9). What are the uses of alloys in daily life and how are alloys made?
Alloying is not always done to produce a 'superior' material, but to produce materials having a desired requirement in the industry or elsewhere. A classic case is of lead solder (containing lead & tin), in which the melting point of the constituent elements are lowered, not necessarily a desirable property.
Alloying can be carried out using hot press method (a sheet of material is sandwiched with alloying material), rolling the heated base metal in a drum full of alloying metal powder, using hot spraying, galvanizing (dipping the base in a molten solution of alloying material) etc. Sometimes the alloying material is added in small proportions to the molten base metal (e.g., in production of different types of steel).

10). What is the world’s largest concrete dam?
The Grand Coulee Dam is said to be the largest concrete dam. Currently the world's largest concrete dam is the Itapúa Dam, an accomplishment of two neighboring countries, Brazil and Paraguay in South America.
Though it is not finished yet, the Three Gorges (or Sand pong) Dam on the Yangtze River in China will take over as the largest upon its completion, which is slated for 2009.

11). What are the main reasons of building collapse?
There are several reasons for building collapse. Passage of time is the main reason. Also, weak foundations, natural calamities like earthquakes, hurricanes, etc., are the major reasons for building collapse. Bombing and destruction is also another major reason.

12). State the applications of modulus of elasticity.
Modulus of elasticity is related to the flexibility of the material. The value of modulus of elasticity is pretty important in case of deflection of different materials used in building construction.

13). How are the freeway bridges built?
The traffic that is likely to go over the bridge at a time is estimated and the cement, rocked with rebar stanchions is placed over the freeway to build a bridge. Off-ramp from freeway to the bridge and on-ramp from the bridge to the freeway are constructed. Cement slabs are used to build a platform.

14). What is the basic difference in absorption, adsorption, and sorption?
Absorption refers to the phenomenon where an atom, molecule or ions enter any bulk phase like gas, solid or liquid. Absorption refers to the phenomenon where energy of photon is transferred to other entity.
13. Adsorption is similar to absorption. It refers to the surface rather than a volume. Adsorption takes place when the gas or liquid solute accumulates on the surface of solid. A substance diffuses in liquid or solid to form a solution.

15). Difference between routine maintenance and major maintenance for school facilities
Routine maintenance is handling the minor repairs of the school campus. Major maintenance can be total reconstruction or renovation of the school.

16). What is soil analysis?
Soil analysis is the testing of soil to determine the nutritional and elemental composition of soil. It is generally tested for knowing the contents of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous.

17). State the building codes.
These codes are the set of specifications to ensure the safety associated with any building construction. These codes are associated with the height, spacing, and installation of the building. These codes play an important role in vacating the building in case of any emergency situations.
From these interview questions, you will get an idea of the questions interviewer can ask you in the civil engineering position interview. Refer to some more sample questions here and revise all the answers carefully.

18). What do you understand by “preset” during the installation process of bridge bearings?
During the installation of bridge bearings the size of the upper plates is reduced to save the material costs. This process is known as preset. Generally the upper bearing plate comprises of the following components:
* Length of bearing
* 2 x irreversible movement.
* 2 x reversible movement.
The bearing initially is placed right in the middle point of the upper bearing plate. No directional effects of irreversible movement are considered. But since the irreversible movement usually takes place in one direction only the displaced direction is placed away from the midpoint. In such cases the length of the upper plate is equal to the length of the length of the bearing + irreversible movement + 2 x reversible movement.

19). Why are steel plates inserted inside bearings in elastomeric bearings?
In order to make an elastomeric bearing act/ function as a soft spring it should be made to allow it to bulge laterally and also the stiffness compression can be increased by simply increasing the limiting amount of the lateral bulging. In many cases in order to increase the compression stiffness of the bearing the usage of metal plates is made. Once steel plates are included in the bearings the freedom of the bulge is restricted dramatically, also the deflection of the bearing is reduced as compared to a bearing without the presence of steel plates. The tensile stresses of the bearings are induced into the steel plates. But the presence of the metal plates does not affect the shear stiffness of the bearings.

20). In case if concrete box girder bridges how is the number of cells determined?
When the depth of a box girder bridge exceeds 1/6th or 1/5th of the bridge width then the design recommended is that of a single cell box girder bridge. But in case the depth of the bridge is lower than 1/6th of the bridge width then a twin-cell or in some cases multiple cell is the preferred choice. One should also note that even in the cases of wider bridges where there depths are comparatively low the number of cells should be minimized. This is so as there is noticeably not much improvement in the transverse load distribution when the number of cells of the box girder is higher than three or more.

21). Under what circumstances should pot bearings be used instead of elastomeric bearings?
Pot bearings are preferred over elastomeric bearings in situations where there are chances of high vertical loads in combinations of very large angle of rotations. Elastomeric bearings always require a large bearing surface so that a compression is maintained between the contact surfaces in between the piers and the bearings. This is not possible to maintain in high load and rotation environment. Also the usage of elastomeric bearings leads to the uneven distribution of stress on the piers. This results in some highly induced stresses to be targeted at the piers henceforth damaging them. Due to the above reasons pot bearings are preferred over elastomeric bearings in such cases.

22). Why should pumping be not used in case of concreting works?
During the pumping operation the pump exerted pressure must overcome any friction between the pumping pipes and the concrete, also the weight of the concrete and the pressure head when the concrete is placed above the pumps. Since only water is pump able, all the pressure generated is by the water that is present in the concrete. The major problem due to pumping is segregation effects and bleeding. In order to rectify and reduce these effects, generally the proportion of the cement is increased in order to increase the cohesion, which leads to the reduction of segregation and bleeding. Also if a proper selection of the aggregate grading can vastly improve the concrete pump ability.

23). Why should curing not be done by pending and polythene sheets?
The primary purpose of curing is to reduce the heat loss of concrete that is freshly placed to the atmosphere and in order to reduce the temperature gradient across the cross-section of the concrete. Pending is not preferred for curing as this method of thermal curing is greatly affected by cold winds. In addition to that in pending large amounts of water is used and has to be disposed off from the construction sites. Polythene sheets are used on the basis that it creates an airtight environment around the concrete surface henceforth reducing the chances of evaporation over fresh concrete surfaces. But the usage of polythene can be a drawback as it can be easily blown away by winds and also the water lost by self-desiccation cannot be replenished.

Computer Science & Engineering

C Interview Questions and Answers

 How can we construct an increment statement or decrement statement in C?
Answer: We can do this in two different ways. 1) By using the increment operator ++ and decrement operator. For example, the statement “i++” means to increment the value of x by 1. Likewise, the statement “x –” means to decrement the value of x by 1. 2) The 2nd way of writing increment statements is to use the conventional + plus sign or minus sign. In the case of “i++, another way to write it is “i = i +1.

List the different storage class specifiers in C?
Answer: static, auto, extern, register

Some Programmers debug their programs by placing comment symbols on some of the codes instead of deleting it. How does this aid in debugging?
Answer: Using comment symbols “/* */ ” in  a code, also called as commenting out, is a way of segregate some codes that you think maybe causing errors in the code, without deleting the program. The aim is that if the code is in fact correct, we can simply remove the comment symbols and continue on. It also saves you time and effort on having to retype the codes if you have deleted it in the first place.

What is call by value and call by reference in C Programming language?
We can pass value to function by two different ways: call by value and call by reference. In case of call by value, a copy of value is passed to the function, so original value is not modified in the call by value. But in case of call by reference, an address of value is passed to the function, so original value is modified in the call by reference.

How can we replace the following statement by using WHILE Loop?
For (x=1; x<=100; x++)
printf ("%d ", x *x );
while (x<=100)
printf ("%d ", x * x);

Name the different functions are used for dynamic memory allocation in C Program?
Answer: malloc (), calloc (), realloc (), free ()

Explain about spaghetti programming?
Answer: Spaghetti programming refers to programs that tend to get tangled and overlapped throughout the codes. This unorganized approach to coding is usually attributed to lack of experience on the part of the programmer. Spaghetti coding makes a program complex and analysing the codes difficult, and so must be avoided as much as possible.

Write the programming code to swap two numbers without using third variable?
Int x=10, y=20;
      printf("Before swap x=%d y=%d",x,y);
        y=x-y;   &nb

In C program, how we can insert quote characters (‘ and ”) into the output screen?
Answer: This is a common problem for freshers/beginners because quotes are normally part of a “printf” statement in program. If we want to insert the quote character as part of the output, use the format specifiers , and ” (for double quote) , ’ (for single quote).

Differentiate between the = symbol and == symbol?
Answer: The = symbol is

For what purpose we use a ‘character?

What is modular programming?

Can the curly brackets { } be used to enclose a single line of code?
Answer: While curly brackets are mai

Check these operators and find out the incorrect operator and explain why? ( >=, <=, <>, ==)
Answer: The incorrect is <>. While this operator is correctly interpreted as “not equal to”” in writing conditional statements, it is not the proper operator to be used in C program. Instead, the operator! =  must be used to indicate “not equal to “condition.

What is ++X and X++ Operator?

Can we use “int” data type to store the value 32768? Why?
Answer:No. “int” data type is capable of storing values from -32768 to 32767. To store 32768, you can use ““long int”” instead of “int”. You can also use ““unsigned int”, assuming you

Explain about the header files and what are the uses of header files in C program?
Answer:Header files are also called as library files. They contain 2 essential things: the definitions and prototypes of functions being used in a code. Simply put, commands that you use in C programming codes are actually functions that are defined from

Can we use two or more operators such as and be combined in a single line of program?
Answer:Yes, it’s perfectly valid to combine operators, especially if the need comes. For example: you can have a code like “printf (“Good ‘Morning ”) ” to output the text “Good”” on the first line and “Morning”” enclosed in single quotes to appear on the next two lines.

Why we are not declaring all the header files in every C p
Answer:The choice of declaring a header file at the top of C pr

List out the merits and demerits of array in C program?
(b) It is not nece
(c) Array elements are stored in continuous memory location.
(a) We cannot change size of array at the run time. So Wastage of memory space.
(b) Array can store only similar type of data.

When we will use the “Void” keyword  in a function?

Write a loop statement that will show the following output:for (b=1; b<=a; b++
}printf(" ");

How can we generate random number
Answer: Random numbers are generated in C using the rand () command. For example: anyNum = rand() will generate any integer number beginning from 0, assuming that anyNum is a variable of type integer.

What is wrong in this statement?  scanf (%d, whatnumber);
Answer: This format is used f
Answer: You

Is it possible to initializ
Answer: Yes, you don’t have to write a separa
Answer: Reserved words are words that are part of the standard C language library. This

What is the different file extensions involved when coding in C?
Answer: Source codes in C are saved with .C file extension. Header files or library files have the .H file extension. Every time a program source code is successfully compiled, it creates an .OBJ object file, and

Explain about linked list?

Consider the below statement
Answer: FALSE. All reserved words must be written in lowercase; o

What are binary trees?
Answer: Binary trees are actually an extension of the concept of linked lists. A binary tree has two pointers, a left one and a right one. Each side can further branch to form additional nodes, which each node having two

Is this program statement is valid? INT = 10.
Answer: Assuming that INT is a variable of type float, this statement is valid. One may think that INT is a reserved word and must not be used for other purposes. However, recall that reserved words are express in lowercase, so the C compiler will not inte

What is wrong with this program statement? void = 10;
Answer: An

What is a newline escape sequence?
Answer: A newline escape sequence is representfore the actual output expression or after. 

Explain about output redirection?
Answer: It is the process of transferring data to an alternative output source other than the display screen. Output redirection allows a program to have its outp  

Write a simple code fragment that will check if a number i
Answer: If (num>=0)  

What is the difference between functions abs() and fabs()?<
Answer: These 2 fu  

What is the difference between functions abs() and fabs()?<

In C which function can be used to append a
Answer: The strcat function. It takes two parameters, the source string  

Do these two program statements perform the
Answer: Yes, they both do the exact same thing, which is to accept the next key pressed by t  

Differentiate between text files and binary files?

The % symbol has a special use in a printf statement. How can you place this character as
Answer: We can do this by using %% in the printf statement. For example, you can write pri  

Explain the advan
Answer: Storing data o  

What is calloc and malloc?

DBMS Interview Questions

What is database?
A database is a collection of information that is organized so that it can easily be accessed, managed, and updated.

What is DBMS?
DBMS stands for Database Management System. It is a collection of programs that enables user to create and maintain a database.

What is a Database system?
The database and DBMS software together is called as Database system.

What are the advantages of DBMS?

  • Redundancy is controlled.
  • Providing multiple user interfaces.
  • Providing backup and recovery
  • Unauthorized access is restricted.
  • Enforcing integrity constraints.

What is normalization?
It is a process of analysing the given relation schemas based on their Functional Dependencies (FDs) and primary key to achieve the properties

  • Minimizing redundancy
  • Minimizing insertion, deletion and update anomalies.

What is Data Model?
A collection of conceptual tools for describing data, data relationships data semantics and constraints.

What is E-R model?
This data model is based on real world that consists of basic objects  called entities and of relationship among these objects. Entities are described in a database by a set of attributes. 

What is Object Oriented model?
This model is based on collection of objects. An object contains values stored in instance variables with in the object. An object also contains bodies of code that operate on the object. These bodies of code are called methods. Objects that contain same types of values and the same methods are grouped together into classes. 

What is an Entity?
An entity is a thing or object of importance about which data must be captured. 

What is DDL (Data Definition Language)?
A data base schema is specifies by a set of definitions expressed by a special language called DDL. 

What is DML (Data Manipulation Language)?
This language that enable user to access or manipulate data as organised  by appropriate data model. Procedural DML or Low level: DML requires a user to specify what data are needed and how to get those data. Non-Procedural DML or High level: DML requires a user to specify what data are needed without specifying how  to get those data 

What is DML Compiler?
It translates DML statements in a query language into low-level instruction that the query evaluation engine can understand. 

What is Query evaluation engine?
It executes low-level instruction generated by compiler. 

What is Functional Dependency?
Functional Dependency is the starting point of normalization. Functional Dependency exists when a relation between two attributes allows you to uniquely determine the corresponding attribute’s value. 

What is 1 NF (Normal Form)?
The first normal form or 1NF is the first and the simplest type of normalization that can be implemented in a database. The main aims of 1NF are to: 
Eliminate duplicative columns from the same table.
Create separate tables for each group of related data and identify each row with a unique column (the primary key).

What is Fully Functional dependency?
A functional dependency X Y is fully functional dependency if removal of any attribute A from X means that the dependency does not hold any more. 

What is 2NF?
A relation schema R is in 2NF if it is in 1NF and every non-prime attribute A in R is fully functionally dependent on primary key. 

What is 3NF?
A relation is in third normal form if it is in Second Normal Form and there are no functional (transitive) dependencies between two (or more) non-primary key attributes. 

What is BCNF (Boyce-Codd Normal Form)?
A table is in Boyce-Codd normal form (BCNF) if and only if it is in 3NF and every determinant is a candidate key. 

What is 4NF?
Fourth normal form requires that a table be BCNF and contain no multi-valued dependencies. 

What is 5NF?
A table is in fifth normal form (5NF) or Project-Join Normal Form (PJNF) if it is in 4NF and it cannot have a lossless decomposition into any number of smaller tables. 

What is a query?
A query with respect to DBMS relates to user commands that are used to interact with a data base. 

What is meant by query optimization?
The phase that identifies an efficient execution plan for evaluating a query that has the least estimated cost is referred to as query optimization. 

What is an attribute?
It is a particular property, which describes the entity. 

What is RDBMS?
Relational Data Base Management Systems (RDBMS) are database management systems that maintain data records and indices in tables. 

What’s difference between DBMS and RDBMS?
DBMS provides a systematic and organized way of storing, managing and retrieving from collection of logically related information. RDBMS also provides what DBMS provides but above that it provides relationship integrity. 

What is SQL?
DSQL stands for Structured Query Language. SQL is an ANSI (American National Standards Institute) standard computer language for accessing and manipulating database systems. SQL statements are used to retrieve and update data in a database.

What is Stored Procedure?
A stored procedure is a named group of SQL statements that have been previously created and stored in the server database.

What is a view?
A view may be a subset of the database or it may contain virtual data that is derived from the database files but is not explicitly stored.

What is Trigger?
A trigger is a SQL procedure that initiates an action when an event (INSERT, DELETE or UPDATE) occurs.

What is Index?
An index is a physical structure containing pointers to the data.

What is extension and intension?
Extension -It is the number of tuples present in a table at any instance. This is time dependent.Intension -It is a constant value that gives the name, structure of table and the constraints laid on it.

What do you mean by atomicity and aggregation?
Atomicity-Atomicity states that database modifications must follow an “all or nothing” rule. Each transaction is said to be “atomic.” If one part   of the transaction fails, the entire transaction fails. Aggregation - A feature of the entity relationship model that allows a relationship set to participate in another relationship set. This is indicated on an ER diagram by drawing a dashed box around the aggregation.

Two important pieces of RDBMS architecture are the kernel, which is the software, and the data dictionary, which consists of the system- level data structures used by the kernel to manage the database.

Name the sub-systems of a RDBMS?
I/O, Security, Language Processing, Process Control, Storage Management, Logging and Recovery, Distribution Control, Transaction Control, Memory Management, Lock Management.

How do you communicate with an RDBMS?
You communicate with an RDBMS using Structured Query Language (SQL)

Disadvantage in File Processing System?

  • Data redundancy & inconsistency.
  • Difficult in accessing data.
  • Data isolation.
  • Data integrity.
  • Which country is most dangerous to India?
  • Concurrent access is not possible.
  • Security Problems.

What is VDL (View Definition Language)?
It specifies user views and their mappings to the conceptual schema.

What is SDL (Storage Definition Language)?
This language is to specify the internal schema. This language may Specify the mapping between two schemas.

Describe concurrency control?
Concurrency control is the process managing simultaneous operations against a database so that database integrity is no compromised. There are two approaches to concurrency control.The pessimistic approach involves locking and the optimistic approach involves versioning.

Describe the difference between homogeneous and heterogeneous distributed database?
A homogenous database is one that uses the same DBMS at each node. A heterogeneous database is one that may have a different DBMS at each node.

What is a distributed database?
A distributed database is a single logical database that is spread across more than one node or locations that are all connected via some communication link.

Explain the difference between two and three-tier architectures?
Three-tier architecture includes a client and two server layers.The   application code is stored on the application server and the database   is stored on the database server. A two-tier architecture includes a client and one server layer. The database is stored on the database server.

Briefly describe the three types of SQL commands?
Data definition language commands are used to create, alter, and drop tables. Data manipulation commands are used to insert, modify, update, and query data in the database. Data control language commands help the DBA to control the database.

List some of the properties of a relation?
Relations in a database have a unique name and no multi valued attributes exist. Each row is unique and each attribute within a relation has a unique name. The sequence of both columns and rows is irrelevant.

Explain the differences between an intranet and an extranet?
An Internet database is accessible by everyone who has access to a Web site. An intranet database limits access to only people within a given organization.

What is SQL Deadlock?
Deadlock is a unique situation in a multi user system that causes two or more users to wait indefinitely for a locked resource.

What is a Catalog?
A catalog is a table that contains the information such as structure of each file, the type and storage format of each data item and various constraints on the data .The information stored in the catalog is called Metadata.

What is data ware housing & OLAP?
Data warehousing and OLAP (online analytical processing) systems are the techniques used in many companies to extract and analyze useful  information from very large databases for decision making .

Describe the three levels of data abstraction?
Physical level: The lowest level of abstraction describes how data are stored.
Logical level: The next higher level of abstraction, describes what data are stored in database and what relationship among those data.
View level: The highest level of abstraction describes only part of entire database.

What is Data Independence?
Data independence means that the application is independent of the storage structure and access strategy of data.

How many types of relationship exist in database designing?

There are three major relationship models:-

  • One-to-one
  • One-to-many
  • Many-to-many

What is order by clause?
ORDER BY clause helps to sort the data in either ascending order to descending

What is the use of DBCC commands?
DBCC stands for database consistency checker. We use these commands to check   the consistency of the databases, i.e., maintenance, validation task and status checks.

What is Collation?
Collation refers to a set of rules that determine how data is sorted and compared.

What is difference between DELETE & TRUNCATE commands?
Delete command removes the rows from a table based on the condition that we provide with a WHERE clause. Truncate will actually remove all the rows from a table and there will be no data in the table after we run the truncate command.

What is Hashing technique?
This is a primary file organization technique that provides very fast access to records on certain search conditions.

What is a transaction?
A transaction is a logical unit of database processing that includes one or more database access operations.

What are the different phases of Transaction?

There are three major relationship models:-

  • Analysis phase
  • Redo phase
  • Undo phase

What is “transparent dbms”?
It is one, which keeps its physical structure hidden from user.

What are the primitive operations common to all record management System?
Addition, deletion and modification.

Explain the differences between structured data and unstructured data.
Structured data are facts concerning objects and events. The most important structured data are numeric, character, and dates.
Structured data are stored in tabular form. Unstructured data are multimedia data such as documents, photographs, maps, images, sound, and video clips. Unstructured data are most commonly found on Web servers and Web-enabled databases.

What are the major functions of the database administrator?
Managing database structure, controlling concurrent processing, managing processing rights and responsibilities, developing database security, providing for database recovery, managing the DBMS and maintaining the data repository.

What is a dependency graph?
A dependency graph is a diagram that is used to portray the connections between database elements.

Explain the difference between an exclusive lock and a shared lock?
An exclusive lock prohibits other users from reading the locked resource; a shared lock allows other users to read the locked resource, but they cannot update it.

Explain the "paradigm mismatch" between SQL and application programming language
SQL statements return a set of rows, while an application program works on one row at a time. To resolve this mismatch the results of  SQL statements are processed as pseudo files, using a cursor or pointer to specify which row is being processed.

Name four applications for triggers.

  • Providing default values
  • Enforcing data constraints
  • Updating views and
  • Enforcing referential integrity

What are the advantages of using stored procedures?
The advantages of stored procedures are

  • greater security
  • decreased network traffic
  • the fact that SQL can be optimized and
  • code sharing which leads to less work, standardized processing, and specialization among developers.

Explain the difference between attributes and identifiers
Entities have attributes. Attributes are properties that describe the entity's characteristics. Entity instances have identifiers. Identifiers are attributes that name, or identify, entity instances.

What is Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), and what kind of a database is used in an ERP application?
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is an information system used in manufacturing companies and includes sales, inventory, production planning, purchasing and other business functions. An ERP system typically uses a multiuser database.

Describe the difference between embedded and dynamic SQL?
Embedded SQL is the process of including hard coded SQL statements. These statements do not change unless the source code is modified. Dynamic SQL is the process of generating SQL on the fly.The statements generated does not have to be the same each time.

Explain a join between tables
A join allows tables to be linked to other tables when a relationship between the tables exists. The relationships are established by using a common column in the tables and often use the primary/foreign key relationship.

Describe a subquery.
A subquery is a query that is composed of two queries. The first query (inner query) is within the WHERE clause of the other query  (outer query).

Compare a hierarchical and network database model?
The hierarchical model is a top-down structure where each parent may have many children but each child can have only one parent. This model supports one-to-one and one-to-many relationships. The network model can be much more flexible than the hierarchical model since each parent can have multiple children but each child can also have multiple parents. This model supports one-to-one, one-to-many, and many-to-many relationships.

Explain the difference between a dynamic and materialized view.
A dynamic view may be created every time that a specific view is requested by a user. A materialized view is created and or updated infrequently and it must be synchronized with its associated base table(s).

Explain what needs to happen to convert a relation to third normal form.
First you must verify that a relation is in both first normal form and second normal form. If the relation is not, you must convert into second normal form. After a relation is in second normal form, you must remove all transitive dependencies.

Describe the four types of indexes?
A unique primary index is unique and is used to find and store a row. A nonunique primary index is not unique and is used to find a row but also where to store a row (based on its unique primary index). A unique secondary index is unique for each row and used to find table rows. A nonunique secondary index is not unique and used to find table rows.

Describe the four types of indexes?
Minimum cardinality is the minimum number of instances of an entity that can be associated with each instance of another entity.  Maximum cardinality is the maximum number of instances of an entity that can be associated with each instance of another entity.

What is deadlock? How can it be avoided? How can it be resolved once it occurs?
Deadlock occurs when two transactions are each waiting on a resource that the other transaction holds. Deadlock can be prevented by requiring transactions to acquire all locks at the same time; once it occurs, the only way to cure it is to abort one of the transactions and back out of partially completed work.

Explain what we mean by an ACID transaction.
An ACID transaction is one that is atomic, consistent, isolated, and durable. Durable means that database changes are permanent. Consistency can mean either statement level or transaction level consistency. With transaction level consistency, a transaction may not see its own changes.Atomic means it is performed as a unit.

Under what conditions should indexes be used?
Indexes can be created to enforce uniqueness, to facilitate sorting, and to enable fast retrieval by column values. A good candidate for an index is a column that is frequently used with equal conditions in WHERE clauses.

What is difference between SQL and SQL SERVER?
SQL is a language that provides an interface to RDBMS, developed by IBM. SQL SERVER is a RDBMS just like Oracle, DB2.

What is Specialization?
It is the process of defining a set of subclasses of an entity type where each subclass contain all the attributes and relationships of the parent entity and may have additional attributes and relationships which are specific to itself.

What is generalization?
It is the process of finding common attributes and relations of a number of entities and defining a common super class for them.

What is meant by Proactive, Retroactive and Simultaneous Update?
Proactive Update: The updates that are applied to database before it becomes effective in real world.
Retroactive Update: The updates that are applied to database before it becomes effective in real world.
Simultaneous Update: The updates that are applied to database at the same time when it becomes effective in real world.

What is RAID Technology?
Redundant array of inexpensive (or independent) disks. The main goal of raid technology is to even out the widely different rates of performance improvement of disks against those in memory and microprocessor. Raid technology employs the technique of data striping to achieve higher transfer rates. 

What are serial, non serial schedule?
A schedule S is serial if, for every transaction T participating in the schedule, all the operations of T is executed consecutively in the schedule, otherwise, the schedule is called non-serial schedule.

What are conflict serializable schedules?
A schedule S of n transactions is serializable if it is equivalent to some serial schedule of the same n transactions.

What is view serializable?
A schedule is said to be view serializable if it is view equivalent with some serial schedule.

What is a foreign key?
A key of a relation schema is called as a foreign key if it is the primary key of some other relation to which it is related to.

What are the disadvantages of using a dbms?

  • High initial investments in h/w, s/w, and training.
  • Generality that a DBMS provides for defining and processing data.
  • Overhead for providing security, concurrency control, recovery, and integrity functions.

What is Lossless join property?
It guarantees that the spurious tuple generation does not occur with respect to relation schemas after decomposition.

What is a Phantom Deadlock?
In distributed deadlock detection, the delay in propagating local information might cause the deadlock detection algorithms to identify deadlocks that do not really exist. Such situations are called phantom deadlocks and they lead to unnecessary aborts.

What is a checkpoint and When does it occur?
A Checkpoint is like a snapshot of the DBMS state. By taking checkpoints, the DBMS can reduce the amount of work to be done during restart in the event of subsequent crashes.

What is schema?
The description of a data base is called the database schema , which is specified during database design and is not expected to change frequently . A displayed schema is called schema diagram .We call each object in the schema as schema construct.

Electronics & Communication Engineering

What are different categories of antenna and give an example of each?

Different categories of antenna are as follows:

  • Wire Antennas - Short Dipole Antenna
  • Microstrip Antennas - Rectangular Microstrip (Patch) Antennas
  • Reflector Antennas - Corner Reflector
  • Travelling Wave Antennas - Helical Antennas
  • Aperture Antennas - Slot Antenna
  • Other Antennas - NFC Antennas

What is handover and what are its types?
Handover in mobile communication refers to the process of transferring a call from one network cell to another without breaking the call.
There are two types of handover which are as follows:

  • Hard Handoff: hard handoff is the process in which the cell connection is disconnected from the previous cell before it is made with the new one.
  • Soft Handoff: It is the process in which a new connection is established first before disconnecting the old one. It is thus more efficient and smart.

What is ionosphere bending?
When a radio wave travels into the ionosphere layer it experiences refraction due to difference in density. The density of ionospheric layer is rarer than the layer below which causes the radio wave to be bent away from the normal. Also the radio wave experiences a force from the ions in the ionospheric layer. If incident at the correct angle the radio wave is completely reflected back to the inner atmosphere due to total internal reflection. This phenomenon is called ionospheric reflection and is used in mobile communication for radio wave propagation also known as ionospheric bending of radio waves.

What is CDMA?
CDMA stands for Code Division Multiple Access which uses digital format. In CDMA systems several transmissions via the radio interface take place simultaneously on the same frequency bandwidth. User data is combined at the transmitter’s side with a code, then transmitted. On air, all transmission get mixed. At the receiver's side the same code is used as in the transmitter’s side. The code helps the receiver to filter the user information of the transmitter from incoming mixture of all transmissions on the same frequency band and same time.

Explain the concept of frequency re-use.
The whole of the geographical area is divided into hexagonal shape geometrical area called cell and each cell having its own transceiver. Each BTS (cell site) allocated different band of frequency or different channel. Each BTS antenna is designed in such a way that i cover cell area in which it is placed with frequency allotted without interfering other cell signals. The design process of selecting and allocating channel groups for all of the cellular base station within system is called frequency reuse.

Explain Bluetooth.
Bluetooth is designed to be a personal area network, where participating entities are mobile and require sporadic communication with others. It is omni directional i.e. it does not have line of sight limitation like infra red does. Ericsson started the work on Bluetooth and named it after the Danish king Harold Bluetooth. Bluetooth operates in the 2.4 GHz area of spectrum and provides a range of 10 metres. It offers transfer speeds of around 720 Kbps.

What are GPRS services?
GPRS services are defined to fall in one of the two categories:
- PTP ( Point to point)
- PTM ( Point to Multipoint)
Some of the GPRS services are not likely to be provided by network operators during early deployment of GPRS due in part to the phased development of standard. Market demand is another factor affecting the decision of operators regarding which services to offer first.

What are the advantages of CDMA?
Advantages of CDMa are as follows:

  • Frequency diversity: Transmission is spread out over a large bandwidth due to that less affected by noise. If bandwidth is increased S/N ratio increases, which means noise will be reduced.
  • Multiplication Resistance: Chipping codes used for CDMA not only exhibit low correlation but also low autocorrelation. Hence a version of the signal that is delayed by more than one chip interval does not interfere with dominant signal as in other multipath environments.
  • Privacy: Due to spread spectrum is obtained by the use of noise like signals, where each user has a unique code, so privacy is inherent.
  • Graceful Degradation. In CDMA, more users access the system simultaneously as compared to FDMa, TDMA.

What are the advantages of spread spectrum?
Spread spectrum has the following advantages:

  • No crosstalk interference.
  • Better voice quality/data integrity and less static noise.
  • Lowered susceptibility to multipath fading.
  • Inherent security.
  • Co-existence.
  • Longer operating distances.
  • Hard to detect.
  • Hard to intercept or demodulate.
  • Harder to jam than narrow bands.
  • Use of ranging and radar.

Explain the steps involved in demodulating a signal.
Once the signal is coded, modulated and then sent, the receiver must demodulate the signal. This is usually done in two steps:

  • Spectrum spreading (e.g., direct sequence or frequency hopping) modulation is removed.
  • The remaining information bearing signal is demodulated by multiplying with a local reference identical in structure and synchronized with received signal.

How can a Pseudo Random Noise Code be usable?
To be usable for direct sequence spreading, a PN code must meet the following conditions:

  • Sequence must be built from 2 leveled numbers.
  • The codes must have sharp autocorrelation peak to enable code synchronization.
  • Codes must have a low cross-correlation value, the lower it is, and more are the number of users which can be allowed in the system.
  • The codes should be “balanced” i.e. the difference between ones and zeros in code may only be 1.
Electrical & Electronics Engineering

Why star delta starter is preferred with induction motor?
Star delta starter is preferred with induction motor due to following reasons:

  • Starting current is reduced 3-4 times of the direct current due to which voltage drops and hence it causes less losses.
  • Star delta starter circuit comes in circuit first during starting of motor, which reduces voltage 3 times, that is why current also reduces up to 3 times and hence less motor burning is caused.
  • In addition, starting torque is increased and it prevents the damage of motor winding.

State the difference between generator and alternator
Generator and alternator are two devices, which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. Both have the same principle of electromagnetic induction, the only difference is that their construction. Generator persists stationary magnetic field and rotating conductor which rolls on the armature with slip rings and brushes riding against each other, hence it converts the induced emf into dc current for external load whereas an alternator has a stationary armature and rotating magnetic field for high voltages but for low voltage output rotating armature and stationary magnetic field is used.

Why AC systems are preferred over DC systems?
Due to following reasons, AC systems are preferred over DC systems:

  • It is easy to maintain and change the voltage of AC electricity for transmission and distribution.
  • Plant cost for AC transmission (circuit breakers, transformers etc) is much lower than the equivalent DC transmission
  • From power stations, AC is produced so it is better to use AC then DC instead of converting it.
  • When a large fault occurs in a network, it is easier to interrupt in an AC system, as the sine wave current will naturally tend to zero at some point making the current easier to interrupt.

How can you relate power engineering with electrical engineering?
Power engineering is a sub division of electrical engineering. It deals with generation, transmission and distribution of energy in electrical form. Design of all power equipments also comes under power engineering. Power engineers may work on the design and maintenance of the power grid i.e. called on grid systems and they might work on off grid systems that are not connected to the system.

What are the various kind of cables used for transmission?
Cables, which are used for transmitting power, can be categorized in three forms:

  • Low-tension cables, which can transmit voltage upto 1000 volts.
  • High-tension cables can transmit voltage upto 23000 volts.
  • From power stations, AC is produced so it is better to use AC then DC instead of converting it.
  • Super tension cables can transmit voltage 66 kV to 132 kV.

Why back emf used for a DC motor? Highlight its significance.
The induced emf developed when the rotating conductors of the armature between the poles of magnet, in a DC motor, cut the magnetic flux, opposes the current flowing through the conductor, when the armature rotates, is called back emf. Its value depends upon the speed of rotation of the armature conductors. In starting, the value of back emf is zero.

What is slip in an induction motor?
Slip can be defined as the difference between the flux speed (Ns) and the rotor speed (N). Speed of the rotor of an induction motor is always less than its synchronous speed. It is usually expressed as a percentage of synchronous speed (Ns) and represented by the symbol ‘S’.

Explain the application of storage batteries.
Storage batteries are used for various purposes, some of the applications are mentioned below:

  • For the operation of protective devices and for emergency lighting at generating stations and substations.
  • For starting, ignition and lighting of automobiles, aircrafts etc.
  • For lighting on steam and diesel railways trains.
  • As a supply power source in telephone exchange, laboratories and broad casting stations.
  • For emergency lighting at hospitals, banks, rural areas where electricity supplies are not possible.

Explain advantages of storage batteries
Few advantages of storage batteries are mentioned below:

  • Most efficient form of storing energy portably.
  • Stored energy is available immediately because there is no lag of time for delivering the stored energy.
  • Reliable source for supply of energy.
  • The energy can be drawn at a fairly constant rate.

What are the different methods for the starting of a synchronous motor?
Starting methods: Synchronous motor can be started by the following two methods:

  • By means of an auxiliary motor: The rotor of a synchronous motor is rotated by auxiliary motor. Then rotor poles are excited due to which the rotor field is locked with the stator-revolving field and continuous rotation is obtained.
  • By providing damper winding: Here, bar conductors are embedded in the outer periphery of the rotor poles and are short-circuited with the short-circuiting rings at both sides. The machine is started as a squirrel cage induction motor first. When it picks up speed, excitation is given to the rotor and the rotor starts rotating continuously as the rotor field is locked with stator revolving field.

Name the types of motors used in vacuum cleaners, phonographic appliances, vending machines, refrigerators, rolling mills, lathes, power factor improvement and cranes.
Following motors are used:

  • Vacuum cleaners- Universal motor.
  • Phonographic appliances – Hysteresis motor.
  • Vending machines – Shaded pole motor.
  • Refrigerators – Capacitor split phase motors.
  • Rolling mills – Cumulative motors.
  • Lathes – DC shunt motors.
  • Power factor improvement – Synchronous motors.

State Thevenin’s Theorem
According to Thevenin’s theorem, the current flowing through a load resistance Connected across any two terminals of a linear active bilateral network is the ratio open circuit voltage (i.e. the voltage across the two terminals when RL is removed) and sum of load resistance and internal resistance of the network. It is given by Voc / (Ri + RL).

State Norton’s Theorem
The Norton’s theorem explains the fact that there are two terminals and they are as follows:

  • One is terminal active network containing voltage sources.
  • Another is the resistance that is viewed from the output terminals. The output terminals are equivalent to the constant source of current and it allows giving the parallel resistance.
    The Norton’s theorem also explains about the constant current that is equal to the current of the short circuit placed across the terminals. The parallel resistance of the network can be viewed from the open circuit terminals when all the voltage and current sources are removed and replaced by the internal resistance.

State Maximum power transfer theorem
The Maximum power transfer theorem explains about the load that a resistance will extract from the network. This includes the maximum power from the network and in this case the load resistance is being is equal to the resistance of the network and it also allows the resistance to be equal to the resistance of the network. This resistance can be viewed by the output terminals and the energy sources can be removed by leaving the internal resistance behind.

Mechanical engineering

What are the different types of fits? Explain?

  • On the basis of Indian standards fits can mainly be categorized into three groups:
    Clearance Fit: These types of fits are characterized by the occurrence of a clearance between the two mating parts. The difference between the minimum size of the hole and the maximum size of the shaft is called the minimum clearance, the difference between the maximum size of the hole and the minimum size of the shaft is known as maximum clearance.
  • Interference Fit: In these types of fits the size of the mating parts are predefined so that interference between them always occurs. The tolerance zone of the hole is completely below the tolerance zone of the shaft.
  • Transition Fit: As the name suggests this type of fit has its mating parts sized limited to allow either clearance or interference. The tolerance zone of the hole and the shaft overlaps in case of such fits.

What are the factors that can affect the Factor of safety selection?

  • The factor of safety is used in designing a machine component. Prior to selecting the correct factor of safety certain points must be taken into consideration such as:
  • The accuracy and authenticity of test results to the actual machine parts.
  • The applied load reliability.
  • The limit of stresses (localized).
  • The loss of property and life in case of failures.
  • The limit of initial stresses at the time period of manufacture.
  • The extent to which the assumptions can be simplified.
  • The factor of safety also depends on numerous other considerations such as the material, the method of manufacturing, the various types of stress, the part shapes etc.

What is heat treatment and why is it done?
Heat treatment can be defined as a combination of processes or operations in which the heating and cooling of a metal or alloy is done in order to obtain desirable characteristics without changing the compositions. Some of the motives or purpose of heat treatment are as follows:

  • In order to improve the hardness of metals.
  • For the softening of the metal.
  • In order to improve the machinability of the metal.
  • To change the grain size.
  • To provide better resistance to heat, corrosion, wear etc.

Heat treatment is generally performed in the following ways:

  • Normalizing
  • Annealing
  • Spheroidising
  • Hardening
  • Tempering
  • Surface or case hardening

What are the rules that must be kept in mind while designing castings?

  • Some of the points that must be kept in mind during the process of cast designing are as follows:
  • To avoid the concentration of stresses sharp corners and frequent use of fillets should be avoided.
  • Section thicknesses should be uniform as much as possible. For variations it must be done gradually.
  • Abrupt changes in the thickness should be avoided at all costs.
  • Simplicity is the key; the casting should be designed as simple as possible.
  • Webs and ribs used for stiffening in castings should as minimal as possible.
  • Curved shapes can be used in order to improve the stress handling of the cast

What are the points that should be kept in mind during forging design?
Some of the points that should be followed while forging design are:

  • A radial flow of grains or fibers must be achieved in the forged components.
  • The forged items such as drop and press forgings should have a parting line that should divide the forging into two equal halves.
  • The ribs in a forging should not be high or thin.
  • In order to avoid increased die wear the pockets and recesses in forgings should be minimum.
  • In forgings the parting line of it should lie as far as possible in a single plane.
  • For ease of forging and easy removal of forgings the surfaces of the metal should contain sufficient drafts.

Describe briefly the different cold drawing processes.
Some of the important cold drawing processes are as follows:

  • Bar and Rod Drawing: In the case of bar drawing the hot drawn bars are at first pickled, washed and coated to prevent oxidation. Once this is done a draw bench is used for the process of cold drawing. In order to make an end possible to enter a drawing die the diameter of the rod is reduced by the swaging operation. This end is fastened by chains to the draw bench and the end is gripped by the jaws of the carriage. In this method a high surface finish and accuracy dimensionally is obtained. The products of this process can be used directly without any further machining.
  • Wire Drawing: Similar to the above process the bars are first pickled, washed and coated to prevent any oxidation. After this the rods are passed through several dies of decreasing diameter to provide a desired reduction in the size ( diameter ). The dies used for the reduction process is generally made up of carbide materials.
  • Tube Drawing: This type of drawing is very similar to the bar drawing process and in majority of cases it is accomplished by the use of a draw bench.

What are the different theories of failure under static load, explain briefly?
The main theories of failure of a member subjected to bi-axial stress are as follows:

  • Maximum principal stress theory ( Rankine’s theory): This theory states that failure occurs at a point in member where the maximum principal or normal stress in a bi-axial system reaches the maximum strength in a simple tension test.
  • Maximum shear stress theory ( Guest’s or Tresca’s theory): This theory states that failure occurs when the biaxial stress reaches a value equal to the shear stress at yield point in a simple tension test.
  • Maximum principal strain theory ( Saint Venant theory): This theory states that failure occurs when bi-axial stress reaches the limiting value of strain.
  • Maximum strain energy theory (Haigh’s theory): This theory states that failure occurs when strain energy per unit volume of the stress system reaches the limiting strain energy point.
  • Maximum distortion energy theory (Hencky and Von Mises theory): This theory states that failure occurs when strain energy per unit volume reaches the limiting distortion energy.

What are the assumptions made in simple theory of bending?
The assumptions made in the theory of simple bending are:

  • The material of the beam is homogeneous this implies that it is uniform in density, strength and have isotropic properties meaning possessing same elastic property in all directions.
  • Even after bending the cross section of the beam remains constant.
  • During the initial stages the beam is straight and unstressed.
  • All the stresses in the beam are within the elastic limit of its material.
  • The layers of the beam are free to contract and expand longitudinally and laterally
  • On any cross section the perpendicular resultant force of the beam is zero.
  • Compared to the cross-sectional dimension of the beam the radius of curvature is very large..

Why stress is considered important in a shaft?
The following types of stresses are prevalent in shafts:

  • At the outermost surface of the shaft the max shear stress occurs on the cross-section of the shaft.
  • At the surface of the shaft on the longitudinal planes through the axis of the shaft the maximum longitudinal shear stress occurs.
  • At 45 degrees to the maximum shearing stress planes at the surface of the shafts the major principal stress occurs. It equals the max shear stress on the cross section of the shaft.
  • For certain materials where the tensile and compressive strengths are lower in measure as compared to the shear strength, then the shaft designing should be carried out for the lowest strengths.
  • All these stresses are of significance as they play a role in governing the failure of the shaft. All theses stresses get generated simultaneously and hence should be considered for designing purposes

What do you understand by the Hooke`s Coupling what are its purposes?
The Hooke`s coupling is used to connect two shafts whose axes intersect at a small angle. The two shafts are inclined at an angle and are constant. During motion it varies as the movement is transferred from one shaft to another. One of the major areas of application of this coupling is in gear boxes where the coupling is used to drive the rear wheels of trucks and other vehicles. In such usage scenarios two couplings are used each at the two ends of the coupling shaft. They are also used to transfer power for multiple drilling machines. The Hooke`s coupling is also known as the Universal coupling. The torque transmitted by the shafts is given by: T= (pie/16) x t x (d) cube
Where T = torque, t = shear stress for the shaft material and d the diameter of the shaft.

What kind of materials should be used for shafts manufacturing?
Some of the qualities that should be present in materials for shafts are as follows:

  • The material should have a high index of strength.
  • Also it should have a high level of machinability.
  • The material should possess a low notch sensitivity factor.
  • The material must also have wear resistant properties.
  • Good heat treatment properties should also be present.
    The common material used to creates shafts of high strengths an alloy of steel like nickel is used. The shafts are manufactured by hot rolling processes and then the shaft is finished using drawing or grinding processes.

Why should a chain drive be used over a belt or rope driven drive? State pro`s and con`s?
The advantages of using a chain drives are:

  • In a chain drive no slip occurrence takes place.
  • The chains take less space as compared to rope or belts as they are made of metal and offer much strength.
  • The chain drives can be used at both short and long ranges and they offer a high level of transmission efficiency.
  • Chain drives can transmit more load and power as compared to belts.
  • A very high speed ratio can be maintained in one step of chain drives.
    Some of the cons of using a chain drive are:
  • The cost of producing chain drives is higher as compared to that of belts.
  • The chain drives must be serviced and maintained at regular intervals and henceforth their cost of ownership is high comparatively.

What are the different types of springs and explain them briefly?
Springs can be broadly classified into the following types:

  • Helical Springs: These springs as their name suggests are in coil form and are in the shape of helix. The primary purpose of such springs is to handle compressive and tensile loads. They can be further classified into two types: compression helical spring and tension helical spring each having their own unique areas of application.
  • Conical and volute springs: Both these spring types have specialized areas of usage where springs with adaptable rate according to the load is required. In case of conical springs they are wound so as to have a uniform pitch while on the other hand volute springs are wound in a slight manner of a parabloid.
  • Torsion Springs: The characteristics of such springs are that they tend to wind up by the load. They can be either helical or spiral in shape. These types of springs are used in circuit breaker mechanisms.
  • Leaf springs: These types of springs are comprised of metal plates of different lengths held together with the help of bolts and clamps. Commonly seen being used as suspensions for vehicles.
  • Disc Springs: As the name suggests such types of springs are comprised of conical discs held together by a bolt or tube.
  • Special Purpose Springs: These springs are all together made of different materials such as air and water.
Petroleum Engineering

List out the methods used for well test analyses?
Various methods for well test analyses are

  • Pressure drawdown tests
  • Pressure build up tests
  • Type curve analysis
  • Pulse tests and Interference
  • Drill stem and wireline formation
  • Gas well tests

Mention what is the main advantage of using the pressure drawdown tests?
The draw down test will help you to estimate the reservoir volume

Explain what is well logging?
A well log is used for graphical representation of any drilling condition or subsurface features that come across while drilling, which is used for the evaluation of the well.

Mention what are the different types of well logging?

  • Resistivity logs
  • Spontaneous potential logs
  • Gamma ray logs
  • Gamma ray absorption logs
  • Neutron logs
  • Sonic porosity logs

Explain what is Pseudo Pressure?
Pseudo pressure is a mathematical pressure function which accounts for the variable compressibility and viscosity of gas with respect to pressure.

Explain the term “bull heading”?
“Bull heading” is a process, where gas is forced back into a formation by pumping into the annulus from the surface.

List Out The Methods Used For Well Test Analysis?

Answer : Various methods for well test analysis are:

  • Pressure drawdown tests
  • Pressure build up tests
  • Type curve analysis
  • Pulse tests and Interference
  • Drill stem and wireline formation
  • Gas well tests

Mention What Is The Main Advantage Of Using The Pressure Drawdown Tests?

Answer : The draw down test will help you to estimate the reservoir volume.

Explain What Is Well Logging?

Answer : A well log is used for graphical representation of any drilling condition or subsurface features that come across while drilling, which is used for the evaluation of the well.

Mention What Are The Different Types Of Well Logging? Answer :

  • Resistivity logs
  • Spontaneous potential logs
  • Gamma ray logs
  • Gamma ray absorption logs
  • Neutron logs
  • Sonic porosity logs

Explain What Is Pseudo Pressure?

Answer : Pseudo pressure is a mathematical pressure function which accounts for the variable compressibility and viscosity of gas with respect to pressure.

Explain The Term “bull Heading”?

Answer : “Bull heading” is a process, where gas is forced back into a formation by pumping into the annulus from the surface.

Which Mineral Is Frequently Used To Increase The Weight Or Density Of Drilling Mud?

Answer : Barium Sulfate or BaSO4 mineral is frequently used to increase the density of drilling mud.

What Is The Importance Of Drilling Muds?

Answer : The drilling muds are used for:

  • Lubrication purpose and for cooling of the drill bit and pipe
  • It removes the cuttings that come from the bottom of the oil well
  • Prevent blowouts by acting as a sealant

What Is the Drill-stem Testing?

Answer : Lowering a device into the drill hole to measure the pressures, it will reveal whether reservoir rock has been reached.

Explain What Is Hydraulic Fracturing?

Answer : Hydraulic fracturing is a technique in which tons of gallons of water, chemicals and sand at high pressure is pumped down across the drilled well. This pressurized mixture makes rock layer to crack and make small space or fissure, through which natural gas emits out.

What Is Proppant And What Is The Use Of It?

Answer : A proppant is a solid material, which is treated with sand or ceramic materials. It is used to keep the induced hydraulic fracture open.

Explain What Is Perforation In Oil Well Drilling?

Answer : A perforation is a hole made in the casing or liner of an oil well to connect it to the reservoir.

Explain The Term Desander And Desilter?

Answer : Desander is a centrifugal device used for removing sand from drilling the fluid to avert the abrasion of the pumps. While Desilter is a centrifugal device used to remove the slit or very fine particles.

Explain What Is Dogleg?

Answer : Dogleg term is used to refer for an abrupt change in direction in the wellbore, resulting in the formation of the keyseat.

Explain What Is Wellbore Storage?

Answer : When the oil well is shut-in, there is continue flow of fluid into the wellbore. This flow of fluid is referred as wellbore storage.

Explain What Is A Blowout Preventer?

Answer : Blowout preventer is installed on the top of the well and is used to control the back pressure produced by oil during the drilling process.

Explain What Is Annular Blowout Preventer?

Answer : Annular blowout preventer is usually a large valve, installed above the ram preventers; it forms a protective seal in the annular space between the pipes and well bore. It seals the annulus between the Kelly, drill collar and drill pipe.

Explain What Is Die Insert?

Answer : Die insert is hard steel, a serrated piece which is removable and fits into the jaws of the tongs and firmly holds the body of the drill pipe, drill collars while the tongs are making up or breaking out of the pipes.

What Is Kelly Bushing?

Answer : Kelly bushing is a device fitted to the rotatory table through which the Kelly passes and the mean by which the torque of the rotatory table is transmitted to the Kelly and to the drill stem.

Hr round

Mock interviews enable candidates to have a fair idea about the sort of things they are going to experience at actual interviews, and prepare them how accurately they can deal with it. Mock interviews help candidates reduce their anxiety about interviewing by training them for the typical interview questions. Mock interviews also prepare job seekers for behavioural-based issues in an interview. In a real interview the behavioural standard is judged much by the interviewee’s body language. So, it is very important to know how one can appear best by employing those standard set of gestures.
As the Quality Placement is the prime object of our Placement Team, the Mock Interview Sessions have always been in practice to prepare students to sit and crack the Interviews of the Companies.

HR Questions about candidate
  • Hello, how are you today?
  • Tell me about yourself.
  • What are your key strengths?
  • What is one thing, which you want to improve about yourself?
  • What are your weaknesses?
  • Where do you see yourself in 5 years from now?
  • Have you been in some challenging situation? Explain how you handled it?
  • The above example, explains your strength like Positive thinking, hard work etc.
  • The above showcases, you multitasking capability, time management, passion for things and hard work.
  • Why should we hire you? 
  • What are your hobbies and interests? 
  • Who is the most inspiring person in your life
  • Are you willing to change your role and profile when required for project?
  • Are you ready to relocate?
  • Are you flexible with timings (if have to work in shift)?
  • Do you wish to pursue higher education?
Core Skills

The Pre placement training programmes are conducted by the in-house trainers as well as the experts from industry. We choose our trainers from various professional bodies and many others who could mould personality of the students and make them suitable for needs of industry. Executives from industries organize the career guidance programme and pre placement training programme whereas the placement cell updates the students about the vacancies. Students are also informed about the crucial points for success. Pre placement training teams visit the campus and educate the students on the process of selection and train them to face the interviews effectively. The following are a glimpse of the pre placement activities conducted by the college.

Overall grooming and personality development is an essential aspect of training that the Placement Cell focuses on. Training one specifically for existing corporate challenges is a short-term goal. In order to truly empower students, the Placement Cell works on grooming them completely so that tomorrow’s new challenges can be dealt-with effectively. The Cell helps students recognize their skills and shortcomings through a series of tests and workshops. With this information, it provides counseling and aid to facilitate students to work on their respective shortcomings and develop their skills. Furthermore, it conducts general workshops for all students so they may develop certain qualities which will help them in handling personal and career challenges. Leadership skills, problem solving, career management and self management are just some of the focus areas of the Placement Cell.

Civil Engineering

RCE teaching pedagogy lets you master your skills. Extensive laboratory work, workshop courses, industry certifications, trainings, live projects and industry internships provide you rigorous hands-on exposure to real life. Civil Engineering is one of the most interesting and well-paid career paths a young person can choose and is a highly sought after profession. Without Civil Engineers we wouldn’t have roads, dams, buildings and bridges.SomeThrust areas of Civil engineering are

  • Surveying
  • Advance Construction Material
  • Slope Stability Analysis
  • Building Foundation Design
  • Construction Quality Audit
  • Dams and Reservations
  • Cost Estimation
  • Risk Analysis
Computer Science & ENgineeing

Computing is part of everything we do. Such as, expertise in computing enables you to solve complex, challenging problems. Computing drives innovation in the sciences, engineering and business:- Like the human genome project, AIDS vaccine research, environmental monitoring and protection. Computer science is challenging, and yet dynamic. It requires people in the field to be keep learning and pushing the limit.SomeThrust areas of Computer Science & Engineering are:

  • Internet of Things (IoT)
  • Web Development
  • Machine Learning
  • Game Development
  • App Development
Electronics & Communication Engineering

Electronics & Communication Engineering is most emerging and evolving discipline in all respects. Electronics engineers conduct research and oversee the development of electronic systems and manufacturing of electronic equipment and devices. From the global positioning system that can continuously provide the location of a vehicle to deep space navigation and control, electronics engineers are responsible for a wide range of technologies e.g. Internet of Things (IoT) which is a promising area of future communication engineering.

Electronics & Communication engineers design, develop, test and supervise the manufacture of electronic quipments and systems. Some of these equipments and systems includes mobile handsets, tablets, laptops, television, radio, security surveillance equipments, radar and navigation systems; communications systems, wearable electronic gadgets and satellites etc. Electronics & Communication engineers also design the electronic and communication systems for automobiles and aircraft.

Electrical & Electronics Engineering

Skill Development and skill enhancement courses are the short term courses introducedto enhance academic standards and quality in higher education include innovation and improvements in curriculum, teaching-learning process.

At Roorkee College of Engineering, Roorkee Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (EEE) offers a comprehensive range of short term technical courses that are designed to cater studentswith best skill set to meet current Industry requirement as well as for career enhancement and professional development. Courses are provided in wide spectrum of proficiency helping students and professional acquire skill and expertise in different Areas. We assist our learners in applying for the certification exam of their choice through our vibrant community of experts and certified professionals.

Mechanical Engineering

At Roorkee College of Engineering, Roorkee Department of Mechanical Engineering, offers a comprehensive range of short term technical courses that are designed to cater students with best skill set to meet current Industry requirement as well as for career enhancement and professional development. Courses are provided in wide spectrum of proficiency helping students and professional acquire skill and expertise in different Areas. We assist our learners in applying for the certification exam of their choice through our vibrant community of experts and certified professionals.Moderate to significant levels of optimism exist about the ability of mechanical engineers to meet global challenges in the next 10 to 20 years.

An increasing number of engineers are predicted to have interdisciplinary training, working more frequently on interdisciplinary teams with both engineering and non-engineering professionals.  Future cutting-edge fields: 

  • Alternative energy
  • Bioengineering/biomedical 
  • Computers 
  • Electronics
  • Energy
  • Nanotechnology 
  • Water 

Most cutting-edge tools and techniques for the future:

  • Motion simulation
  • Animation/virtual prototype
  • Top areas identified for increased 

knowledge enhancement:

  • Nanotechnology
  • Renewable energy 
  • Solar/wind

Increasingly desirable skills:

  • Multilingual capability
  • Global team management 
Petroleum Engineering

RCE teaching pedagogy lets you master your skills. A petroleum engineer is involved in nearly all of the stages of oil and gas field evaluation, development, and production. Their aim is to drill for hydrocarbons in the most efficient way, and to resolve any operating issues. Extensive laboratory work, workshop courses, industry certifications, trainings, live projects, and industry internships enhance competencies to take up higher responsibilities and strengthen the leadership pipeline. This will bring cultural change from command & control to team based structure. Petroleum Engineering is one of the most interesting and well-paid career paths a young person can choose and is a highly sought after profession. Without Petroleum Engineers we wouldn’t have crude oil which means we will never be able to use motor vehicles for transport purpose.Some thrust areas of Petroleum Engineering are

  • Reservoir Engineering
  • Well Stimulation
  • Oil & Gas Well Drilling
  • Well Control
  • Formation Evaluation
  • Oil & Gas Well Testing
  • Oil & Gas Marketing
  • Risk Analysis

Agriculture & forestry: Skill Development and skill enhancement courses are the short term courses introduced to enhance academic standards and quality in higher education include innovation and improvements in curriculum, teaching-learning process.

At Roorkee College, Roorkee Department of Agriculture and Forestry offers a comprehensive range of short term technical courses that are designed to cater students with best skill set to meet current Industry requirement as well as for career enhancement and professional development. Courses are provided in wide spectrum of proficiency helping students and professional acquire skill and expertise in different Areas. We assist our learners in applying for the certification exam of their choice through our vibrant community of experts and certified professionals.


Opportunities are boundless as they often expand their careers beyond the traditional management accounting realm to provide related services for many different types of organizations. Corporate Accounting and Financial Analysis are required in all areas of the business world such as Financial & Corporate Accounting, Management & Cost Accounting, Financial Risk Management, Management Consulting & Performance Management, Financial Planning & Analysis, Corporate Finance (M&A, IPO, Equity & Debt Issues), Venture Capital, Internal Auditing, Information Technology (especially as applied to accounting) and Corporate Governance.

Programme outcomes are a set of competencies which students acquire at the end of graduation. On successful completion, they shall:

  • Have fundamental knowledge of Accountancy, Auditing, Taxation, Management, Finance, Law, Business Communication, Advertising, Economics and Mathematics / Statistics and provide innovative solutions to problems in business.
  • To encourage the students to undertake higher studies and research in commerce and allied disciplines.
  • Be able to communicate their ideas with industry effi ciently and effectively.
  • Develop the ability to work at individual level as well as at team level.
  • Be able to integrate latest technology and apply mathematical and statistical tools and techniques.
  • Have skills to develop business models and be responsible global citizens who exhibit crosscultural competent behaviour, and ethical values.